Product Research

At Tom's of Maine, we are as serious about good science and effective products as we are about our belief in sustainability and social responsibility. Our team of distinguished dentists, scientists, and herbal experts are leaders in their fields, and their innovative methods and extensive research result in effective natural products that deliver key benefits using plants and minerals.

We invite you to take a peek into the professional activities of our product research and development team (both past and present) — we're very proud of the work they do!

Peer-Reviewed Publications and Poster Presentations

Oral Health

Publications

Gafner, S, Bergeron, C, Villinski, JR, Godejohann, M, Kessler, P, Cardellina II, JH, Ferreira, D, Feghali, K and Grenier, D. (2011) Isoflavonoids and coumarins from Glycyrrhiza uralensis: antibacterial activity against oral pathogens, and conversion of isoflavans into isoflavan-quinones during gel filtration. Journal of Natural Products (Submitted).

Tanabe, SI, Desjardins, J, Bergeron, C, Gafner, S, Villinski, JR and Grenier, D. (2011) Reduction of bacterial volatile sulfur compound production by licoricidin and licorisoflavan A from licorice. (Submitted)

La VD, Tanabe S, Bergeron C, Gafner S and Grenier D. (2011) Modulation of matrix metalloproteinase and cytokine production by licorice isolates licoricidin and licorisoflavan a: potential therapeutic approach for periodontitis. Journal of Periodontology. 82(1):122-8.

La, VD, Gafner, S., Bergeron, C and Grenier, D. (2009) Grape seed extract suppresses lipopolysaccharide-induced matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) secretion by macrophages and inhibits human MMP-1 and -9 activities. Journal of Periodontology. 80(11): 1875-82

Bodet, C, La, VD, Gafner, S, Bergeron, C and Grenier, D (2008) A licorice extract reduces lipopolysaccharide-induced pro-inflammatory cytokine secretion by macrophages and whole blood. Journal of Periodontology. 79(9): 1752-61.

Villinski, JR, Dumas, ER, Chai, HB, Pezzuto, JM, Angerhofer, CK and Gafner, S. (2003) Comparison of antimicrobial activities and alkaloid contents of Berberis thunbergii, Berberis vulgaris and Hydrastis canadensis. Pharmaceutical Biology 41(8): 551-7.

Poster presentations

Villinski, JR and Gafner, S. June 2009. Comparison of solid-phase microextraction with headspace analysis for screening of volatile components in natural preservatives. 50th Annual Meeting of the American Society of Pharmacognosy, Honolulu, USA.

Colson, KL. Ferrier, J. Arnason, JT, Cuerrier, A, Hicks, JM, Tempesta, MS, Killday, KB and Gafner, S. June 2009. Blueberry extract: towards the development of a quality and "fingerprinting" identification tool using NMR. 50th Annual Meeting of the American Society of Pharmacognosy, Honolulu, USA.

Bergeron, C, Gafner, S, Dumas, ER, Michaud, AE, Bodet, C and Grenier, D. July 2008. Effects of a licorice (Glycyrrhiza uralensis) extract on Porphyromonas gingivalis growth and biofilm formation. International Association for Dental Research General Session, Toronto, ON, Canada.

Gafner, S, Dumas, ER, Bodet, C, Grenier, D, Gregory, RL and Bergeron, C. August 2006. Inhibition of dental biofilm formation by high molecular-weight fractions from cranberry (Vaccinium macrocarpon). 47th Annual Meeting of the American Society of Pharmacognosy, Arlington, VA.

Hutchins, TM, Engelman, EE and Schemehorn, B. March 2005. EFU Investigation of Natural Fluoride Mouthwashes vs. ADA Accepted Mouthwashes. Joint meeting of IADR/AADR/CADR, Baltimore, MD.

Zero, D, Chin, JR, Kelly, SA, Eckert, G., Venell, JA and Engelman, EE. March 2005. Efficacy of Natural Toothpastes in an In situ Caries Model. Joint meeting of IADR/AADR/CADR, Baltimore, MD.

Engelman, EE and Venell, JA. March 2005. Efficacy Trends of an Aging U.S. Pharmacopeia Reference Dentifrice. Joint meeting of IADR/AADR/CADR, Baltimore, MD.

Dumas, ER, Engelman, EE and Venell, JA. 2003 In vitro Antibacterial Comparison of Dentifrices Claiming Antigingivitis and Gum-Healing Properties, J Dent Res 82 (Spec Iss A) 0389, .

Gafner, S, Bergeron, C, Batcha, LL and Angerhofer, CK. July 2000. Free radical scavenging activities of different extracts of Green Tea (Camellia sinensis). 41st Annual Meeting of the American Society of Pharmacognosy, Seattle, WA.

Oral Presentations

Gafner, S, Schneider, C, La, VD, Grenier, D and Bergeron, C. June 2009. Prenylated isoflavans from licorice as inhibitors of matrix metalloproteinase expression. 50th Annual Meeting of the American Society of Pharmacognosy, Honolulu, USA.

Colson, KL, Hicks, JM, Glinski, JA, Gafner, S, McIntyre, K, Ferrier, J, Arnason, JT, Cuerrier, A, Killday, KB and Tempesta, MS. June 2009. Towards the development of a NMR based screening tool for quality control and source identification for natural product extracts. 50th Annual Meeting of the American Society of Pharmacognosy, Honolulu, USA.

Gafner, S, Dumas, ER, Michaud, AE, Bodet, C, La, VD, Grenier, D and Bergeron, C. August 2008. A supercritical licorice (Glycyrrhiza uralensis) extract inhibits growth of oral pathogens and reduces LPS-induced cytokine secretion by macrphages and whole blood. 7th joint meeting of AFERP, ASP, GA, PSE & SIF, Athens, GREECE.

Personal Care

Publications

Dumas, ER, Michaud, AE, Bergeron, C, Lafrance, JL, Mortillo, S and Gafner, S. (2009) Deodorant effects of a supercritical hops extract: antibacterial activity against Corynebacterium xerosis and Staphylococcus epidermidis and efficacy testing of a hops/zinc ricinoleate stick in humans through the sensory evaluation of axillary deodorancy. Journal of Cosmetic Dermatology 8: 197-204.

Oral Presentations

Gafner, S, Bergeron, C, Dumas, ER., Villinski, JR., Hicks, J.M., Colson KL and Maas, W. March 2008. Analytical approaches for determining the fate of natural ingredients in personal care products: the case of hops. Invited speaker, fifth Natural Health Product Conference, Toronto, CANADA.

Botanical research

Publications

Bergeron, C and Gafner, S. (2007) Quantitative analysis of polysaccharide and glycoprotein fractions in Echinacea purpurea and Echinacea angustifolia by HPLC-ELSD for quality control of raw material. Pharmaceutical Biology 45(2): 98-105.

Gafner, S, Dietz, B, McPhail, KL, Scott, IM, Glinski, JA, Russell, FE, McCollom, MM, Budzinski, JW, Foster, BC, Bergeron, C and Bolton, J. (2006) Alkaloids from Eschscholtzia californica and their capacity to inhibit binding of 3[H]8-hydroxy-2-(di-N-propylamino)tetralin to 5-HT1A receptors in vitro. Journal of Natural Products 69(3): 432-435.

Gafner, S, Sudberg, S, Sudberg, ÉM, Villinski, JR, Gauthier, R and Bergeron, C. (2006) Chromatographic fingerprinting as a means of quality control: Distinction between Actaea racemosa and four different Actaea species. Acta horticulturae 720:83-94.

Gafner, S. and Bergeron, C. (2005) The challenges of chemical stability testing of herbal extracts in finished products using state-of-the-art analytical methodologies. Current Pharmaceutical Analysis 1(2): 203-215.

McCollom, MM, Villinski, JR, McPhail, KL, Craker, LE and Gafner, S. (2005) Analysis of macamides in samples of Maca (Lepidium meyenii) by HPLC-UV/MS/MS. Phytochemical Analysis 16(6): 463-469.

Bergeron, C, Gafner, S, Clausen, E and Carrier, DJ. (2005) Comparison of the chemical composition of extracts from Scutellaria lateriflora using accelerated solvent extraction and supercritical fluid extraction versus standard hot water or 70% ethanol extraction. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 53 (8): 3076-80.

Gafner S, Bergeron C, McCollom MM, Cooper LM, McPhail KL, Gerwick WH and Angerhofer CK (2004) Evaluation of the efficiency of three different solvent systems to extract triterpene saponins from roots of Panax quinquefolius using high-performance liquid chromatography. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 52(6): 1546-50.

Gafner, S, Sudberg, S, Sudberg, ÉM, Bergeron, C, Batcha, LL, Guinaudeau, H, Gauthier, R and Angerhofer, C.K. (2003) Analysis of Scutellaria lateriflora and its adulterants Teucrium canadense and Teucrium chamaedrys by LC-UV/MS, TLC and Digital Photo-Microscopy, Journal of the AOAC International 86(3): 453-460.

Gafner, S, Bergeron, C, Batcha, LL, Reich, J, Arnason, JT, Burdette, JE, Pezzuto, JM.and Angerhofer , CK. (2003) Inhibition of [3H]-LSD binding to 5-HT7 receptors by flavonoids from Scutellaria lateriflora L. Journal of Natural Products 66(4):535-537.

Bergeron, C, Gafner, S, Batcha, LL and Angerhofer, CK. (2002) Stabilization of caffeic acid derivatives in Echinacea purpurea L. glycerin extract. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 50(14): 3967-70.

Li, W, Chen, S; Fabricant, D, Angerhofer, CK, Fong, HHS, Farnsworth, NR and Fitzloff JF. (2002) High-performance liquid chromatographic analysis of Black Cohosh (Cimicifuga racemosa) constituents with in-line evaporative light scattering and photodiode array detection. Analytica Chimica Acta, 471(1): 61-75.

Poster presentations

Hicks, JM, Glinski, JA, Gafner, S, McIntyre, K, Ferrier, J, Arnason, JT, Cuerrier, A, and Colson, KL. September 2009. Dietary supplements: towards the development of a quality and "fingerprinting" identification tool using NMR. 123th AOAC Annual Meeting and Exposition, Philadelphia, USA.

Bergeron, C, McCollom, MM, Scott, I, Glinski, JA, Arnason, JT, Foster, BC and Gafner, S. August 2004. In-vitro anxiolytic activity of California poppy (Eschscholtzia californica Cham.). International Congress on Natural Products Research, Phoenix, AZ.

Gafner, S, White, AB, Melzig, MM, Cuendet, M., Pezzuto, JM and Bergeron, C. August 2004. Evaluation of the anti-inflammatory properties of skullcap (Scutellaria lateriflora L.) extracts in different in-vitro models. International Congress on Natural Products Research, Phoenix, AZ.

Bergeron, C. and Gafner, S. July 2003. Polysaccharide and glycoprotein quantification in Echinacea sp. by HPLC-ELSD. 44th Annual Meeting of the American Society of Pharmacognosy, Chapel Hill, NC.

Gafner, S, Bergeron, C, Sudberg, S, Sudberg, ÉM, Kelly, L, George, M, Gauthier, R, Guinaudeau, H and Angerhofer, C.K. July 2003. Adulteration of mad-dog skullcap (Scutellaria lateriflora L.): an example of the importance of classical pharmacognosy. 44th Annual Meeting of the American Society of Pharmacognosy, Chapel Hill, NC.

Russell, FE, Gafner, S, Cooper, LM and Bergeron, C. July 2003. Stability of the flavonoids present in Scutellaria lateriflora L. glycerin extracts treated with heat, citric acid and ascorbic acid. 44th Annual Meeting of the American Society of Pharmacognosy, Chapel Hill, NC.

McCollom, MM, Gafner, S and Craker, LE. July 2003. Synthesis of n-benzyl-hexadecanamide as a standard compound for quantifying macamides in Maca (Lepidium meyenii). 44th Annual Meeting of the American Society of Pharmacognosy, Chapel Hill, NC.

Gafner, S, Bergeron, C, Burdette, JE, Pezzuto, JM and Angerhofer, CK. September 2002. Inhibition of [3H]-LSD binding to 5-HT7 receptors by flavonoids from Scutellaria lateriflora L. 50th Annual Meeting of the Society of Medicinal Plant Research (GA), Barcelona, Spain.

Bergeron, C, Gafner, S and Angerhofer, CK. July 2002. Is water activity a good indicator of degradation in Echinacea purpurea L. root glycerites? 50th Annual Meeting of the Society of Medicinal Plant Research (GA), Barcelona, Spain.

Gafner, S, Bergeron, C, Keil, J, Batcha, LL and Angerhofer, CK. July 2002. Comparison of extraction efficiency of 50% ethanol versus 65% glycerin: HPLC analysis of Echinacea purpurea (L.) MOENCH, Ginkgo biloba L., Hypericum perforatum L., Panax quinquefolius L. and Valeriana officinalis. 43rd Annual Meeting of the American Society of Pharmacognosy, New Brunswick, NJ.

Russell, FE, Gafner, S, Bergeron, C, Villinski, JR, Keil, J and Angerhofer, CK. July 2002. Comparison of extraction efficiency of fresh and dried plant material with ethanol versus glycerin: HPLC and GC/MS analysis of Matricaria recutita (L.), and Calendula officinalis (L.). 43rd Annual Meeting of the American Society of Pharmacognosy, New Brunswick, NJ.

Bergeron, C, Russell, FE, Dumas, ER, Gafner, S and Angerhofer, CK. July 2002. Echinacea purpurea glycerite: Key elements of the extraction process. 43rd Annual Meeting of the American Society of Pharmacognosy, New Brunswick, NJ.

Villinski, JR, Dumas, ER, Pezzuto, JM, Angerhofer, CK and Gafner, S. November 2001. Comparison of antimicrobial activity and alkaloid content of Berberis thunbergii, Berberis vulgaris and Hydrastis canadensis. American Society of Pharmacognosy & Counsil for Responsible Nutrition 2001 Interim Meeting, Asilomar, CA.

Bergeron, C, Gafner, S, Batcha, LL and Angerhofer, CK. July 2001. Stabilization of hydrophilic compounds in Echinacea purpurea L. glycerin extracts. 42nd Annual Meeting of the American Society of Pharmacognosy, Oaxaca, Mexico.

Gafner, S, Batcha, LL, Bergeron, C, Awad, R, Arnason, JT and Angerhofer, CK. July 2001. Analysis of Scutellaria lateriflora and its adulterant Teucrium canadense by HPLC-UV and HPLC-UV/MS. 42nd Annual Meeting of the American Society of Pharmacognosy, Oaxaca, Mexico.

Gafner, S, Batcha, LL, Bergeron, C, Arnason, JT and Angerhofer, CK. September 2000. Comparison of different extracts of Scutellaria lateriflora by HPLC. 48th Annual Meeting of the Society of Medicinal Plant Research (GA), Zürich, Switzerland.

Oral Presentations

Gafner, S. August 2006. Bucking the system: Non-Academic Careers for Natural Products Scientists: The Dietary Supplement and Personal Care Industry. Workshop, 47th Annual Meeting of the American Society of Pharmacognosy, Arlington, USA.

Gafner, S, Sudberg, S, Sudberg, ÉM, Gauthier, R and Bergeron, C. August 2005. Chromatographic fingerprinting as a means of quality control: Distinction between Actaea racemosa and four different Actaea species. International Conference Quality and Safety Issues Related to Botanicals, University, MS, USA.

Gafner, S, Bergeron, C, Sudberg, S, Sudberg, ÉM, Kelly, L, George, M, Gauthier, R, Guinaudeau, H and Angerhofer, CK. February 2004. Adulteration of skullcap (Scutellaria lateriflora L.): from digital photo-microscopy to HPLC-NMR. First Natural Health Product Conference, Montreal, CANADA.

Bergeron, C, Angerhofer, CK and Gafner, S. November 2001. New targets for quality control: quantitative analysis of highly polar compounds in Echinacea purpurea and Hypericum perforatum. American Society of Pharmacognosy & Counsil for Responsible Nutrition 2001 Interim Meeting, Asilomar, CA, USA.

Published Book Reviews

Bergeron, C, 2005; Medicinal Herbs. A Compendium, by B. Gehrmann, W.G. Koch, C.O. Tschirch and H. Brinkmann. Journal of Natural Products, 68, 963.

Gafner, S, 2004; Herbal Drugs and Phytopharmaceuticals, 3rd Edition, by M. Wichtl. Journal of Natural Products, 67, 1775.

Gafner, S, 2002; Nutraceuticals, by L. Rapoport and B. Lockwood. Journal of Natural Products, 65, 1226.

Angerhofer, CK, 2002; Herb-CD, 4th edition, by T. Bendler, J. Gruenwald and C. Jaenicke. Journal of Natural Products, 65, 951.

Angerhofer, CK, 2001; Sage: The Genus Salvia, by S.E. Kintzios. Journal of Natural Products, 64, 1258.

Angerhofer, CK, 2001; Toxicology and Clinical Pharmacology of Herbal Products, by M Johns Cupp. Journal of Natural Products, 64, 845.